Over-the-counter Medicine Abuse – A Review Of The Literature
British Journal of Sociology. Cross-sectional survey of retailers pharmacies, supermarkets, health food shops of laxatives near to eating disorder treatment centre. Also within this category of direct harms were concerns raised about chronic rebound headache associated with repeated use of analgesics. In Jordan, for example, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were commonly cited by pharmacists as ovdrthecounter.com abused, as regulations restricting their supply were not always enforced Albsoul-Younes et al. One further omission is the absence of any reference to pseudo-addiction in the OTC literature identified in this review. Attempts to describe the extent of OTC medicine abuse have been made using a variety of methods and data sources, which were often geographically related, but reflected heterogeneous participant groups and data. Responses to suspected review involved limiting supply rather than advice. From a total of patients attending treatment clinics in Overthecounter.com Town, Overthecounter.com Africa in a 6-month period, Myers, Siegfried and Parry identified 17 cases involving OTC codeine abuse. Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter nicotine gum in a volunteer sample. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. These reflected a similar categorisation made by Matheson et al. Such research overtheecounter.com needed to inform policy, regulation and the preparedness of a range of health care professionals to avoid harm to those who purchase OTC review that may be liable to abuse. Interventions and support A range of strategies were review that were aimed at minimising the harm associated overthecounter.com OTC medicine abuse, and supporting and treating affected individuals, although there was no evidence of any associated evaluation of these. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. To understand who is at risk of developing dependence to OTC overthecounter.com, and how products are used. Ford and Good noted the side effects relating to ibuprofen review Dutch reported both patients having perforated gastric ulcers. As Akram noted, however, this is unfortunate because it does not distinguish between misuse and abuse as separate problems, although some attempts to do this were identified in the literature:. A pilot study to investigate over-the-counter drug abuse and review in Palestine. Data relating to those who may be addicted to OTC medicines were obtained from several different sources, overthecounter.com review. Abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs sold in community pharmacies in Jordan. In Northern Ireland, Hughes et al. Current ovsrthecounter.com are ineffective. A range of methods had been used in empirical studies, with various scales of surveys being most commonly used, oerthecounter.com well as primary data collection of treatment centres and secondary data collection of emergency department presentations. To investigate pharmacist perceptions of OTC misuse, identify products used, overthecounter.com factors and strategies used. It was also apparent that sampling influenced the emergent data, and, for example, studies that rwview pharmacists appeared to generate more detailed and varied descriptions of medicines that may be abused or misused Hughes et al.
Many empirical studies that surveyed pharmacists sought their practical strategies and a number of common approaches emerged Matheson et al. Medical Journal of Australia. This may result in what has been variously referred to as the misuse or abuse of OTC medicines and their potential to cause addiction and dependency. Cross-sectional pilot survey of patients requesting medicines from pharmacies assigned into one of five therapeutic groups review, dextromethorphan, pseudoephedrine, antihistamines and control. Whether these can be adequately mapped onto additional concerns about overthecounter.com loss of control in addiction, as argued by Reithfor example, are ovefthecounter.com issues. A pilot study to investigate over-the-counter drug abuse and misuse in Palestine. Dependence and other adverse effects. Major and Vincze Survey self-reported use of OTC medicines and understanding of abuse review amongst people who visit Hungarian pharmacies. Participants viewed OTC medicines as different to other drugs, overthecounter.con themselves as different from other drug users. Response rates appear to have varied significantly using this approach, and whilst Matheson et al. Prescription and OTC medicines accounted for 3. All pharmacies in review region of Scotland. The authors rdview methodological concerns about the overthecounter.com of such data, noting that OTC and prescription medicine recording by treatment staff was inconsistent, and may be due to not only the relatively recent inclusion of such data but also two further factors: Characteristics of dependent and nondependent regular users of codeine. Nigerian Journal of Medicine. Structured face-to-face questionnaire of 25 questions. Overthecounter.com UK studies have explored the experiences and perceptions of pharmacists in relation to OTC medicine misuse and abuse and estimates of the extent of the problem were presented as a result. Abuse of codeine-containing cough syrups: Current controls are ineffective. Over-the-counter drug use in gymnasiums:
The use of secondary data sources, such as those in various US reports Substance Abuse and Mental Health Review Administration, and using details of patients attending drug treatment centres in South Africa Myers overthecounter.com al. To assess the attitudes of GPs regarding the appropriateness of OTC medication review by their patients. Major and Reviww Survey self-reported use of OTC medicines and understanding of ovdrthecounter.com potential amongst people who visit Hungarian pharmacies. Dependence and other adverse effects. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Expert panel judged on abuse. More information about medicines was suggested as being needed. Considerable terminological variation was apparent in the identified literature. Published online Oct 3. Attempts to describe the extent of Overthecpunter.com medicine abuse have been made using a variety of methods and data overthecounter.com, which were often geographically related, but reflected overthecountfr.com participant groups and data. International Journal on Drug Policy. One follow-up mailing piloted, with minor amendments made. Background The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly. Nigerian Journal of Medicine. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. American Psychiatric Association; Observation of model developed using expert conference discussion local stakeholders consultation; records analysed from participating pharmacies trained in using model.
It should be noted that in this study, although some data pertained to an OTC-specific medicine codeinethe main findings did not present Review medicines and those on prescription separately. Younger participants were more likely to report this. On-line survey of codeine users, qualitative interviews with geview people and key experts. World Health Organisation; This study also estimated that a mean of 5. Addiction, identity and the problems of freedom. Abuse of proprietary over-the-counter drugs. Cross-sectional telephone survey, eliciting views on past overthecounter.com current use of nicotine gum in first study and questions based on dependency diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV and ICD British Journal of Sociology. Two specific websites — Overcount and CodeineFree overthdcounter.com were identified and considered to provide a valuable service that was not formally recognised Reay, Focus groups used to address validity. Lessenger and Feinberg produced a comprehensive list of physical findings of nonmedical use of abused OTC products, noting agitation with nicotine gum, caffeine and ephedra, overthecounter.com review, priapism with ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, psychiatric effects with dextromethorphan, euphoric psychosis with Coricidin and chlorphenamine and gastrointestinal disturbances with laxatives. Associated harms included direct physiological or psychological harm e. A report from India. Medical Journal of Australia. The author alone is responsible for the content and writing of this paper. Addiction versus dependence in DSM-V.
Extent and pattern of misuse overthecounter.com over period — From a total of patients attending treatment clinics in Cape Town, overthecounter.com review, South Africa in a 6-month period, Myers, Siegfried and Parry identified 17 cases involving OTC codeine abuse. Second, there were physiological harms related to the adverse effects of another active ingredient in a compound formulation. The authors identified methodological concerns about the recording of such data, noting that OTC and prescription medicine recording by treatment staff was review, and may review due to not only the relatively recent inclusion of such data but also two further factors: Modified three-stage Delphi design using postal survey. Literature review findings A total of 53 publications were identified, including 25 empirical studies, 11 case reports, 11 reviews articles, 1 book chapter, 1 doctoral thesis, 1 parliamentary enquiry and 3 key publications from organisations. It was also apparent that sampling influenced the emergent data, and, for example, studies that used pharmacists appeared to generate more detailed and varied descriptions of medicines that may be abused or misused Hughes et al. Survey of all pharmacies in Welsh health authority in Medical Journal of Australia. This study also estimated that a mean of 5. Open in a separate window. Expert panel judged on abuse. Overthecounter.com face-to-face questionnaire of 25 questions. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. Hypokalaemia in ibuprofen and codeine phosphate abuse. British Journal of Sociology. Examples of types of harm associated with OTC medicine abuse.
Additional grey literature was explored by strategies such as extensively contacting researchers in the field, to identify current research and non-peer-reviewed research publications. Review of students in US county using survey in Abuse is the non-medical use of OTC drugs, e, overthecounter.com review. One follow-up mailing piloted, with minor amendments made. This revealed that for 0. Journal of Substance Use. Taylor and Francis; Some participants expressed concern about side effects and abuse and misuse potential of medicines, including OTC medicines. This represented an increase from The author reports no conflict of interest. A more recent study from the United States also used drug treatment admissions Gonzales et al. Prevalence and correlates in a national sample. All 60 pharmacies in Northumberland, England in More than half Other direct problems overthecounter.com convulsions and acidosis due to a codeine and antihistamine diphenhydramine containing antitussive medicine Murao et al. Declaration of interest This review was part of a larger study that was funded by the Pharmacy Practice Research Trust. Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication: Two cross-sectional postal surveys in and Overthecounter.com harm reduction strategy was proposed by Temple whereby pharmacists would set a contract review individuals experiencing OTC medicine abuse to have regular supplies of medicines, reducing over time and involving detailed record keeping and adequate communication between pharmacies and involving drug team coordinators. Other studies provided more equivocal pharmacist perceptions, and Pates et al. An emerging cause of perforated gastric ulcer. Cross-sectional descriptive study using data captured for all treatment admissions to public addiction services. One further omission is the absence of any reference to pseudo-addiction in the OTC literature identified in this review. The Sociology of health and illness. Considerable terminological variation was apparent in the identified literature.
Underscoring this definitional variation are also fundamental issues about stigma, identify and also agency. Barriers included staff changes, time pressures, gaining full cooperation, lack of deterrence to those addicted and industry factors. These reflected a similar categorisation made by Matheson et al. Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Addiction versus dependence in DSM-V. There has been a tendency for the public to perceive OTC medicines to be safer than prescription medicines Bissell et al. This review was part of a larger study that was funded by the Pharmacy Practice Research Trust. Data indicated that Severe hypokalaemia and weakness due to Nurofen misuse. But whilst this may arguably warn those using products for the first time, for those with an existing problem, more support may be needed in the clinical pathway. Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication: As Lessenger and Feinberg noted, there is a relative lack of literature relating to OTC medicines that may be abused, and only one previous review has been undertaken Reed et al. A pharmacoepidemiological pilot study based on community pharmacies in France. To obtain information from Palestinian community pharmacists about perceptions of OTC medicine abuse, suspected customer types and solutions. Adopting such methods may reveal further insights that could help understanding of the contested definitional issues raised above, as well as providing more than the proxy summaries of those perceived to be affected, as offered by some pharmacist-participant studies. Steinman focused on the adolescent US population and surveyed 39, high school students in one county and reported 4. Cross-sectional survey of retailers pharmacies, supermarkets, health food shops of laxatives near to eating disorder treatment centre. No abuse identified for dextromethorphan, one case for pseudoephedrine, and none for antihistamines. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Dutch and Ford and Good reported on two hospital and three primary care presentations, respectively, of patients who had used a combination analgesic containing ibuprofen and codeine. Journal of Adolescent Health. OTC, over-the-counter; GP, general practitioner. Frequency of OTC medicine misuse assessed with one question. In terms of agency, it revkew interesting to reflect on the distinction between overthecounter.com and abuse in some of the extant literature, since this appears to recognise overthecounyer.com difference between intentionally experimenting with a medicine to elicit a different effect and abusing it, and unintentionally deviating from standard use taking at different dose or indication and therefore misusing it. Overtbecounter.com relation to policy, this review confirms that there is a problem in a number of countries but concerns about what is being investigated — whether this is misuse, abuse, dependency, addiction or pseudo-addiction — coupled with a lack of systematic data on the scale of the problem make appropriate and proportionate policy-based interventions difficult to review.
Background The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly. Review strategy A thematic literature review approach was adopted, since there were a range of questions identified which a systematic review would have been inappropriate for, and also because including both review and empirical literature was considered advantageous in mapping out the breadth of understanding in this area. Most frequently identified were painkillers, sleep aids and cough medicines. But whilst this may arguably warn those using products for the first time, for those with an existing problem, more support may be needed in the clinical pathway. The most recent study identified Nielsen et al. The latter are available for purchase in many countries and combine codeine or dihydrocodeine with either ibuprofen or paracetamol and have led to particular concerns about addiction and also gastric or hepatic damage, respectively Reay, ; Frei et al. Tinsley and Watkins reported on seven patients with dependence according to DSM-IV criteria for amphetamine-like abuse to ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and reported adverse social consequences in relation to losing jobs, family-marital stresses, relapse into alcohol misuse, motor vehicle violations and accidents. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The interface between the community pharmacist and patients. A population survey of Scottish pharmacies. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Codeine or other opiate containing products compound analgesics, cough medicines. Whether these can be adequately mapped onto additional concerns about the loss of control in addiction, as argued by Reith , for example, are additional issues. It was also apparent that sampling influenced the emergent data, and, for example, studies that used pharmacists appeared to generate more detailed and varied descriptions of medicines that may be abused or misused Hughes et al. Exclusion criteria included non-English language publications and reference exclusively to prescribed or illicitly obtained medicines. Dependence and other adverse effects. Who is addicted to OTC medicines? This represented an increase from Cough products and especially dextromethorphan appeared to be the focus of several studies and data from the United States Steinman, ; Levine, ; Peters et al. New Zealand Medical Journal. To explore the type of OTC medicines being abused and pharmacist attitudes, management and training needs. First, there were revieww harms related to the pharmacological or psychological effects of the drug of abuse or misuse. A pilot study to investigate over-the-counter drug abuse and misuse in Palestine. Observational case series; semi-structured interview. Night Nurse, Sudafed and Benylin also denied. Convenient sample of every third clinic patient having prescription overthecounter.com. This review was part of a larger study that was funded by the Pharmacy Practice Research Review. They identified similar clinical presentations as noted above and one death.